Page 2 of 2 FirstFirst 12
Results 36 to 64 of 64

Thread: Guitar Amp Grade Capacitors ???

  1. #36
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    May 2006
    Posts
    1,310
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 0/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    14
    anyone want to buy "signal grade" copper wire? Or perhaps "speaker wire grade" copper wire? Optional silver plating for less harshness.

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  2. #37
    Senior Member fyl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Feb 2007
    Posts
    169
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 1/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    12
    the negative indicator and numbers/lettering looks similar
    Ahem.

    "Jesin":



    Kendrick:



    Xicon:



    Richey:


    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  3. #38
    Bent Member Chuck H's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2007
    Location
    pacific north west
    Posts
    14,022
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 1,047/5
    Given: 1,066/0
    Rep Power
    28
    Quote Originally Posted by mooreamps View Post
    In the old days, they used rolled paper and foil for filter caps. Maybe it's time to start rolling my own. "Probably would sound better too"!!!!!!
    Maybe... But where to get NOS paper?

    BTW, I'd love to get my filters for under six bucks. Since I don't build hundreds of amps at a shot I pay fifteen bucks for the first cap in the string and twelve for the others I really need to experiment with less expensive caps to see if there's any undesireable results. I'm pretty sure I can get radial Nichicon PW series for less and the specs for those caps whoop a$$ on the ATOM caps.

    Chuck

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  4. #39
    Bent Member Chuck H's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2007
    Location
    pacific north west
    Posts
    14,022
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 1,047/5
    Given: 1,066/0
    Rep Power
    28
    Ha! Just looked it up...

    If your willing to work with radial caps you can get Nichicon PW's for three and a half bucks for a 100uf @ 450V and 22uf @ 450V for a buck and a half.

    Very next build. No doubt. Screw Sprague, fifteen bucks, pfft.

    Chuck

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  5. #40
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    May 2007
    Location
    Silicon Valley ; USA
    Posts
    1,097
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 0/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    13
    Quote Originally Posted by dai h. View Post
    anyone want to buy "signal grade" copper wire? Or perhaps "speaker wire grade" copper wire? Optional silver plating for less harshness.

    don't forget to leave out those new "HD" certified antenna's for TV ...



    -g

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  6. #41
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    May 2007
    Location
    Silicon Valley ; USA
    Posts
    1,097
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 0/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    13
    BTW. From some of the research I've done on power supplies for guitar amps, it seems you get a little bit more of a vintage tone from the old Fender paper caps that were partially dried out over the course of time, meaning the internal ESR going up. The new more modern high end filter caps with the very low measured internal ESR's may look good on a spec sheet, but I wonder if a "guitar amp grade" cap would actually end up being on the other end of the scale ; for the more vintage tones..... If so, very easy to mimic with the modern day components.


    -g

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
    Last edited by mooreamps; 05-20-2010 at 06:14 AM. Reason: spelling

  7. #42
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    May 2006
    Posts
    1,310
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 0/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    14
    Quote Originally Posted by fyl View Post
    Ahem.

    "Jesin":

    Kendrick:

    Xicon:

    Richey:
    ahh, looks like the "Jesin" could be the original source.

    these "Unicon" are some current production axials that I know of (Japanese company, factory in China AFAIK--seems to be typical to have moved the factories to cut costs), and have negative markings that are a bit different :

    ユニコン アルミ電解チューブラ形コンデンサー アルミ電解ブロック形コンデンサー

    company:

    http://www.unielecs.com/

    datasheets:

    http://www.unielecs.com/FUT.PDF

    http://www.unielecs.com/GST.PDF

    I don't really see many new production axial alu electros here. Seems predominantly radial. Radial are lot less expensive also.

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  8. #43
    Old Timer
    Join Date
    Jun 2006
    Posts
    3,315
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 1/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    16
    ...so...what did Gerald say?

    Why, a week or more after the thread started are people still speculating based on font type. Read the font, the caps you reference are all 450v rating. Dimensions?

    This thread is a perfect example of how the internet can be a completely valueless source of misinformation & speculation. This isn't a sasquatch hunt...you just need to ring Gerald & ask him, or buy a cap & check dimensions & compare those & spec to the Asian caps.

    1 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  9. #44
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    May 2006
    Posts
    1,310
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 0/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    14
    that would only be useful if he tells the truth. I'd rather see a document with country of origin info for the Xicon and Richey caps(if they are also S.Korea made, then that is three that match, which would seem to make a stronger case for the Kendrick being from the same manf.). Personally I don't think there is anything wrong with him getting "Kendrick" branded alu electros. Might be perfectly fine even if they are the dreaded "Asian" caps. Also, I personally do think the font and negative markings are useful clues to origin, since there does seem to be a degree of uniqueness with the markings(and the cuttings(?) in the top vent parts of radials).

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  10. #45
    Old Timer
    Join Date
    Jun 2006
    Posts
    3,315
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 1/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    16
    "that would only be useful if he tells the truth." Why wouldn't he? Do you typicaly lie about such things...are we supposed to take what you say for granted & assume that anyone else could be lying?

    "Also, I personally do think the font and negative markings are useful clues to origin, since there does seem to be a degree of uniqueness with the markings (and the cuttings(?) in the top vent parts of radials)." - Knowing the origin is the best clue to knowing the origin...your post would have been better directed to Gerald, then you would know & not be guessing. Not all Asian caps are "dreaded", some are widely used in respected builds...but again, few are 500v rated.

    Remember, this thread is not simply about someone's perceived tonal benefit about a part/brand or value...it'a not a matter of opinion...the caps are made somewhere, that is a fact... you can guess/pontificate but it doesn't change the location of where the cap is made.

    For the umpteenth time, why not just ask him?

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  11. #46
    Noodle of Reality Steve Conner's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2006
    Location
    Glasgow, Scotland
    Posts
    7,251
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 11/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    22
    Also for the umpteenth time... There's nothing wrong with cheap Asian capacitors! They're used by the billion in consumer electronics.

    If anything, I'd trust them more than boutique ones made in small quantities, the large manufacturing volume gives them a chance at consistency. But what you do have to beware of is bad batches that were scrapped by the manufacturer. Sometimes they get pulled out of the dumpster and sold to hobbyists on Ebay.

    Axial electrolytics are on the way out, but high voltage radial ones are still extensively used in switchmode power supplies, which are a more arduous environment than any guitar amp.

    I don't know of any current production Asian caps that go above 450V. For the higher voltages you're best to use two 350V ones in series.

    1 Not allowed! Not allowed!
    "Enzo, I see that you replied parasitic oscillations. Is that a hypothesis? Or is that your amazing metal band I should check out?"

  12. #47
    Old Timer
    Join Date
    Jun 2006
    Posts
    3,315
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 1/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    16
    I don't disagree Steve, but I'd also point out that until the provenance of the caps in question is established, we have no reason to suspect that they are not mass produced with acceptable consistency.

    For me personally...it's not an issue, being in the UK, I will fit US made caps if that is what a customer wants, but I can pick up Euro made caps easily & cheaply enough in the values I mostly use & I am perfectly happy to use Asian caps, especially in situations where their typically smaller physical size might be relevant...I just don't see any benefit to aimless speculation & rumour mongering.

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  13. #48
    Noodle of Reality Steve Conner's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2006
    Location
    Glasgow, Scotland
    Posts
    7,251
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 11/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    22
    I totally agree! I've used a lot of cheap off-brand caps like "HL" and "Suntan", and never had any trouble with them. I get them from Rapid Electronics, because they're pretty cheap, about 」3 for a 100uF 450V part.

    If you want to pay extra for something, look for 105'C rated caps. It gets pretty hot inside a "tubes down" combo.

    The only caps that ever gave me cause for concern were, ironically, some large Rifa inverter-grade ones (」15 each!) I used as filter caps in a hi-fi amp. After several years they started to show some white crusty deposits around the vent plugs. But they still seemed to work fine, so I left them in there, they have now been running 10 years.

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
    "Enzo, I see that you replied parasitic oscillations. Is that a hypothesis? Or is that your amazing metal band I should check out?"

  14. #49
    Senior Member guitician's Avatar
    Join Date
    Aug 2008
    Location
    Phoenix
    Posts
    1,003
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 0/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    12
    I thought that electrolytic caps were obsolete??? Who would put a part in an amp that is sure to fail in a pre-determined time....oh that's right.... manufactures looking to sell next years model....

    It cant be because of tone.....caps don't have tone......

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  15. #50
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    May 2007
    Location
    Silicon Valley ; USA
    Posts
    1,097
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 0/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    13
    Quote Originally Posted by guitician View Post
    I thought that electrolytic caps were obsolete??? Who would put a part in an amp that is sure to fail in a pre-determined time....oh that's right.... manufactures looking to sell next years model....

    It cant be because of tone.....caps don't have tone......
    Electrolytic caps can last a long time. One way is to keep them charged by putting the stand-by switch after the cap. This technique was used by Fender in some of their vintage equipment.

    caps don't have tone ????? wanna bet ??


    -g

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  16. #51
    Senior Member guitician's Avatar
    Join Date
    Aug 2008
    Location
    Phoenix
    Posts
    1,003
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 0/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    12
    You thought I was serious...lol

    Seriously.....tone is in the ear of the beholder

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  17. #52
    Better Tone thru Mathematics bob p's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2006
    Location
    Chicago, USA
    Posts
    4,908
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 60/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    17
    Quote Originally Posted by Steve Conner View Post
    Also for the umpteenth time... There's nothing wrong with cheap Asian capacitors! They're used by the billion in consumer electronics.
    I disagree. Cheap caps are one of the main reasons that today's consumer electronics fail after a short service life.

    Unlike yesterday's consumer electronics that were made to last 20 years and could be repaired to last another 20 years, today's consumer electronics are designed to fail after a short lifespan and to be discarded not repaired. More often than not the reason for failure is low quality capacitors.

    I've had some bad experiences: expensive flatscreen TVs and cheap DVD players both fail through the same mode -- cheap capacitors. Here's an example: my $30 DVD player. It used cheapo, no-name Chinese caps in the PSU, and as soon as it was out of its 12-month warranty it died due to PSU cap failure. My neighbor had the same problem. We had both bought DVD players at Christmas time. The two players were different brands, but looked alike and shared identical guts. Troubeshooting them took a few seconds because once I popped the hood I could hear the PSU caps hissing. Both had died because of failed PSU caps. Both were easily repaired with a single $0.25 cap.

    You know the story -- these things would have lasted 20 years if they had used a decent quality cap instead of the cheapest cap that would last through the warranty period. Because the manufacturer is too cheap to use a $0.03 cap, you have to pay $30.00 to buy a new device. Few people can accomplish the $0.25 repair.

    I've had the exact same problem with electronic metal halide ballasts. Cheap caps cause system failures, and because the ballasts are potted they're non-serviceable / disposable items. Your only option is to throw the dead one away and repurchase a $150.00 replacement. Cheap manufacturing and short lifespan effectively eliminates the theoretical cost savings of electronic ballasts when they die during a short service life. Instead of repurchasing another expensive ballast, hoping that efficiency will save you money over time, its cheaper to run an old-fashioned magnetic ballast. Although they're a bit less efficient, they last forever because you can repair them by replacing the caps.

    Sometimes I feel like I'm taking one step forward and two steps back.

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
    "Stand back, I'm holding a calculator." - chinrest

    "I happen to have an original 1955 Stratocaster! The neck and body have been replaced with top quality Warmoth parts, I upgraded the hardware and put in custom, hand wound pickups. It's fabulous. There's nothing like that vintage tone or owning an original." - Chuck H

  18. #53
    Senior Member guitician's Avatar
    Join Date
    Aug 2008
    Location
    Phoenix
    Posts
    1,003
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 0/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    12
    Quote Originally Posted by Steve Conner View Post
    Also for the umpteenth time... There's nothing wrong with cheap Asian capacitors! They're used by the billion in consumer electronics.
    It's all about their INITIAL QUALITY!

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  19. #54
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    May 2007
    Location
    Silicon Valley ; USA
    Posts
    1,097
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 0/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    13
    Quote Originally Posted by guitician View Post
    You thought I was serious...lol

    Seriously.....tone is in the ear of the beholder
    Hey. Don't mind me. I'm just a lowly rocket engineer..... But, I will be in Florida next week when we prep my spacecraft for launch in June.


    -g

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  20. #55
    Noodle of Reality Steve Conner's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2006
    Location
    Glasgow, Scotland
    Posts
    7,251
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 11/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    22
    Cool, maybe it'll get to 100 feet this time.

    Bob: Try replacing the caps in your flatscreen TV with Sprague Atoms and see how much longer they last.

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
    "Enzo, I see that you replied parasitic oscillations. Is that a hypothesis? Or is that your amazing metal band I should check out?"

  21. #56
    Better Tone thru Mathematics bob p's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2006
    Location
    Chicago, USA
    Posts
    4,908
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 60/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    17
    I'm not a fan of Atoms, Steve. I don't use them. I prefer the CDE 380/381 series snap-in caps, or the CDE 550C inverter grade caps for "extreme" applications (like the supply rails on Carver amps).

    There's no question that the TV would have lasted a lot longer if it had used quality caps in the first place. Its unfortunate that so much electronic gear fails today because the Chinese contract manufacturers choose to substitute inferior quality parts for high quality parts because they think the swap will go undetected. They will substitute the lowest quality part that they can get away with using. Its gotten to the point that if you buy something, you have to buy a brand-name item in the HOPE that the brand name customer will ride the contract manufacturer hard enough to assure that there's no part swapping going on. If you buy a no name item, you can pretty much bet on the fact that its got the lowest passable quality parts inside and that its going to have a short service life.

    I don't have blind faith in Asian caps. I've been burned too many times.

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
    "Stand back, I'm holding a calculator." - chinrest

    "I happen to have an original 1955 Stratocaster! The neck and body have been replaced with top quality Warmoth parts, I upgraded the hardware and put in custom, hand wound pickups. It's fabulous. There's nothing like that vintage tone or owning an original." - Chuck H

  22. #57
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Dec 2007
    Posts
    932
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 0/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    12
    Quote Originally Posted by bob p View Post
    I've had the exact same problem with electronic metal halide ballasts. Cheap caps cause system failures, and because the ballasts are potted they're non-serviceable / disposable items. Your only option is to throw the dead one away and repurchase a $150.00 replacement. Cheap manufacturing and short lifespan effectively eliminates the theoretical cost savings of electronic ballasts when they die during a short service life. Instead of repurchasing another expensive ballast, hoping that efficiency will save you money over time, its cheaper to run an old-fashioned magnetic ballast. Although they're a bit less efficient, they last forever because you can repair them by replacing the caps.

    Sometimes I feel like I'm taking one step forward and two steps back.
    That's great to hear about electronic ballasts. I work for a company that makes steel for magnetic ballasts. We had various bigwigs in our marketing dept., who wanted us to exit the business because "magnetic ballasts are doomed" when electronic ballasts take over. I love it when magnetism wins.

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  23. #58
    Better Tone thru Mathematics bob p's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2006
    Location
    Chicago, USA
    Posts
    4,908
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 60/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    17
    Magnetic MH ballasts were the de-facto standard in HID lighting until being "green" got shoved in everyone's faces, and everyone scrambled to make HF electronic ballasts because they were 10-15% more efficient. I've had the electronics fail so many times its not funny. There's not much "green" in throwing out a potted electronic ballast every few years and manufacturing a new one to take its place... especially when a "tar" ballast can last a hundred years.

    On a related note, the performance levels are better with mag ballasts also. I'm using MH lights for lighting a reef aquarium, and I monitor the light output with a rather pricey PAR meter. It measures the amount of photosynthetically active radiation that is produced by the lighting system. Since coral growth rates are dependent upon light delivery, there's a direct correlation between the number of u-moles of light per square meter per second and the number of grams of CaC03 that become photosynthetically calcified as coral skeletons per square meter per month. One important thing that I've noticed in using the PAR meter is that the mag ballasts produce more intense light than the e-ballasts because they're current regulated devices and not power regulated devices. Granted, people might not notice the e-ballast's dimmer light output in a warehouse application, but the amount of PAR is directly related to coral growth rates, whose variance is subjectively very noticeable in a captive reef system.

    There's been a lot of EPA propaganda and marketing hype about the better relative "efficiency" of e-ballasts. Being someone who actually measures the light output (and the rate of coral growth in kg of CaCO3 per square meter per year), I don't agree with the hype. The energy savings aren't being realized in an equal light comparison. The energy savings data is intentionally skewed; part of the reason that the ballasts consume less energy is because of efficiency, but they're also designed to produce less total light. The ads sound good, but the real world results are lacking. Tell that to your marketing guys.

    Of course, we see the same effect with CFL bulbs. They save energy for two reasons: fluorescent is more energy efficient, and the lights also produce fewer lumens of output than the incandescent equivalent. Not many people notice the difference, but it can be very noticeable with a reading lamp, or if you have a light meter. My house is darker now that we're using "equal wattage equivalent" CFL bulbs.

    1 Not allowed! Not allowed!
    Last edited by bob p; 06-30-2010 at 09:52 AM.
    "Stand back, I'm holding a calculator." - chinrest

    "I happen to have an original 1955 Stratocaster! The neck and body have been replaced with top quality Warmoth parts, I upgraded the hardware and put in custom, hand wound pickups. It's fabulous. There's nothing like that vintage tone or owning an original." - Chuck H

  24. #59
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Jul 2006
    Location
    Goteborg, Sweden
    Posts
    225
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 2/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    13
    You want to know where any component was manufactured? Ask the supplier for a copy of ROHS compliance certificate. If they can't or won't provide it then smell the fish.
    Want really, really, really high quality long life high voltage electrolytics? They're made in France, be ready to cough up the Euros through your nose but the amp will outlive you and the owner without a cap job down the line. They're HERE - takes a while to browse through the site to find exactly what you're looking for like 100uF/500V radial cap 105C derated to 70C operating temperature gives >200.000 hrs life time, get better air flow, reduce temperature another 15C and get close to 500.000hrs lifetime. These caps are spec'd for mission critical avionics and space duty. (In space noone can hear you play so it doesn't matter what caps are in your amp)

    1 Not allowed! Not allowed!
    Last edited by Alex/Tubewonder; 07-11-2010 at 10:48 AM.
    Aleksander Niemand
    Zagray! amp- PG review Aug 2011
    Without the freedom to criticize, there is no true praise. -Pierre Beaumarchais, playwright (1732-1799)

  25. #60
    Senior Member fyl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Feb 2007
    Posts
    169
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 1/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    12
    Want really, really, really high quality long life high voltage electrolytics? They're made in France, be ready to cough up the Euros through your nose but the amp will outlive you and the owner without a cap job down the line.
    Eurofarad manufactures some of the best caps around but aren't alone: check for instance the Evox/Rifa line - now part of the Kemet empire. For instance axial caps from the PEG124 series are rated for 27,500 hours @ 105ーC.

    http://www.kemet.com/kemet/web/homepage/kechome.nsf/file/PEG124%20Series/$file/F3304_PEG124.pdf

    1 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  26. #61
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Jul 2006
    Location
    Goteborg, Sweden
    Posts
    225
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 2/0
    Given: 0/0
    Rep Power
    13
    Yes, I'm familiar with Rifa/Evox as they are practically on my home turf but I was thinking that cork sniffers might like French caps better. Put an electrolytic cap in air tight container for a month or two, then open and smell the fumes. Try caps from several manufacturers and you'll notice very distinct differences in the "bouquet".

    1 Not allowed! Not allowed!
    Aleksander Niemand
    Zagray! amp- PG review Aug 2011
    Without the freedom to criticize, there is no true praise. -Pierre Beaumarchais, playwright (1732-1799)

  27. #62
    Member
    Join Date
    Jul 2016
    Location
    Orlando
    Posts
    120
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 26/0
    Given: 51/0
    Rep Power
    3
    Good caps.. good price. Old post yea but I'm adding my input.

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  28. #63
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    May 2011
    Location
    New York City
    Posts
    180
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 1/3
    Given: 129/14
    Rep Power
    8
    And T-Bone Walker - father of electric blues guitar

    0 Not allowed! Not allowed!

  29. #64
    Member
    Join Date
    Jun 2011
    Location
    Pittsburgh PA
    Posts
    93
    Thumbs Up/Down
    Received: 3/0
    Given: 4/0
    Rep Power
    8
    Quote Originally Posted by Steve Conner View Post
    I think quite a few guitar players will subconsciously correct intervals like major thirds by bending one of the notes a little.
    I tend to throw in a lot of major thirds while using distortion and you can bet your ass I'm bending the root note sharper to compensate. It's pretty automatic for me.

    1 Not allowed! Not allowed!

Thread Information

Users Browsing this Thread

There are currently 1 users browsing this thread. (0 members and 1 guests)

Similar Threads

  1. Cabinet grade finishing
    By dan stanton in forum Cabinetry
    Replies: 6
    Last Post: 04-28-2010, 10:39 PM
  2. Which grade of Neo magnets is best for Magnetizing
    By tonedeciple in forum Pickup Makers
    Replies: 3
    Last Post: 03-08-2010, 02:55 AM
  3. Replies: 20
    Last Post: 07-14-2009, 09:40 PM
  4. How to grade vintage Alnico humbucker magnets.
    By JGundry in forum Pickup Makers
    Replies: 11
    Last Post: 08-19-2007, 12:59 AM
  5. Neo grade
    By Achiles in forum Pickup Makers
    Replies: 4
    Last Post: 08-03-2007, 06:34 AM

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •